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Updated: Jun 25, 2023

Citrus lemon is a small evergreen tree in the Rutaceae flowering plant family native to South Asia, especially Northeast India.

The ellipsoidal yellow fruit of the tree is used for both culinary and non-culinary purposes all over the world, especially for its juice, which can be used for both cooking and cleaning. Both the pulp and the rind can be used in cooking and baking. The lemon juice contains around 5% to 6% citric acid and has a pH of about 2.2, giving it a sour taste. Lemon juice's distinct sour flavor makes it a common ingredient in drinks and desserts including lemonade and lemon meringue pie.



The origin of the lemon is uncertain, but it is thought to have originated in Assam (a northeastern Indian state), northern Burma, or China. According to a genetic analysis of the lemon, it is a cross between bitter orange (sour orange) and citron.

In the middle of the 15th century, Genoa saw the first significant cultivation of lemons in Europe. In 1493, when Christopher Columbus took lemon seeds to Hispaniola on his voyages, the lemon was introduced to the Americas. The spread of lemon seeds was aided by the Spanish conquest of the New World. It was primarily used as a decorative plant and for medicinal purposes. Lemons were gradually planted in Florida and California in the nineteenth century.

Nutritional Value:

  • Vitamin C is abundant in lemons.

  • Polyphenols, terpenes, and tannins are among the phytochemicals found in lemons.

  • Citric acid in lemon juice is significantly higher than in lime juice.

Culinary Uses:

Lemon juice, rind, and peel can be used in a number of foods and beverages. Marmalade, lemon curd, and lemon liqueur are all made from the whole lemon. Lemon slices and rind are used to garnish foods and beverages. Lemon zest is the grated rind of a lemon that is used to spice baked goods, puddings, rice, and other dishes.


  • The leaves of the lemon tree are used to make a tea and for preparing cooked meats and seafoods.

  • Lemon leaves are used to make Detox water & Mocktail in beverage items.


  • Zest of lemon are used in top of fish dishes for flavor, taste and garnish.


  • Pectin, a polysaccharide used as a gelling agent and stabilizer in food and other items, may be made from the peel.


  • Lemon juice is used in a variety of beverages, including lemonade, soft drinks, and cocktails. Its acid neutralizes amines in fish by converting them to nonvolatile ammonium salts, and it's used in fish marinades. The acid tenderizes meat by partly hydrolyzing tough collagen fibers. Lemon juice is frequently added to pancakes in the United Kingdom, especially on Shrove Tuesday.

  • Lemon juice is often used as a short-term preservative on foods like apples, bananas, and avocados that oxidize and turn brown after being cut (enzymatic browning), since its acid denatures the enzymes.

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Arnab Dhar

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